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Шведы сделали важное открытие об иммунитете к коронавирусу

Намного больше, чем считалось, людей обладают защитными свойствами против COVID-19

Шведские ученые пришли к выводу, что уровень коллективного иммунитета к коронавирусу может быть вдвое выше, чем предполагалось ранее. Более того, он может формироваться даже у людей с отрицательными тестами на антитела.

Шведы сделали важное открытие об иммунитете к коронавирусу

фото: pixabay.com

Исследователи из Каролинского института в Стокгольме провели иммунологический анализ образцов более чем 200 пациентов, у многих из которых заболевание протекало в легкой форме, либо совсем бессимптомно.

Примечательно, что в отличие от других ученых, специалисты из Швеции – единственной европейской страны, которая не ввела серьезных ограничительных мер на фоне COVID-19 – не списывают развитие иммунитета на наличие в организме человека антител к вирусу.

Более того, они считают, что до сих пор попытки «измерить» уровень иммунитета у населения в основном не увенчались успехом как раз из-за того, что акцент при исследовании делался на антителах.

Как сообщает со ссылкой на исследование издание Daily Mail, помимо изучения антител, ученые обратили внимание на уровень T-лимфоцитов, или Т-клеток у пациентов. Дело в том, что именно они играют важнейшую роль в формировании иммунитета к перенесенным инфекционным заболеваниям.

Кроме того, они хранят информацию о ранее действовавших антигенах, за счет чего и формируют быстрый вторичный иммунный ответ, уничтожая при этом опасный патоген. Поэтому их часто называют Т-киллерами.

Согласно результатам исследования, у 30% здоровых доноров крови был обнаружен так называемый «Т-клеточный иммунитет». Более того, он был в два раза выше, чем у тех, у кого в организме были обнаружены антитела.

Это означает, что большее число людей, сами того не подозревая, могут обладать развитыми защитными свойствами против COVID-19.

Однако ученым пока неизвестно, как долго держится иммунитет к коронавирусу при Т-клеточном ответе. Считается, что антитела сохраняют свою защитную функцию от трех до шести месяцев.

«Это означает, что мы, вероятно, занижаем число людей, у которых есть какой-то иммунитет, – говорит доцент Каролинского института Маркус Баггерт. – Означает ли это, что такие люди полностью защищены, или в будущем заболевание у них будет протекать в более мягкой форме или бессимптомно, сказать трудно».

Соавтор исследования профессор Ханс-Густав Люнггрен добавил, что это открытие было «очень хорошей новостью с точки зрения общественного здравоохранения».

Известно, что анализ на выявление Т-клеток намного сложнее, чем тест на антитела. В настоящее время его проводят только в специализированных лабораториях.

Источник: mk.ru

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