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Итальянский остров без больных коронавирусом поставил ученых в тупик

Генетические особенности или бессимптомный COVID-19: почему зараза обошла местное население стороной

На итальянском острове Джильо ни один из жителей не пострадал от коронавируса. Однако даже при таком нулевом показателе единственный врач острова все еще беспокоится о вспышке COVID-19. Загадочный пример Джильо заставляет задаваться многими вопросами. Могли ли местные жители в действительности заразиться, но у них не проявлялись симптомы? Или секрет сопротивляемости вирусу кроется в генетических особенностях островитян? А может быть, им просто повезло?

Итальянский остров без больных коронавирусом поставил ученых в тупик

фото: en.wikipedia.org

Ни один из приблизительно 800 жителей острова Джильо не сообщил, что у них развились симптомы COVID-19, хотя условия, по-видимому, благоприятствовали распространению болезни подобно лесному пожару, сообщает Associated Press.

Доктор Армандо Скиафино, единственный врач острова на протяжении 40 лет, разделяет беспокойство по поводу потенциальной местной вспышки.

«Каждый раз, когда появляется обычная детская болезнь, такая как скарлатина, корь или ветряная оспа, за несколько дней заражаются практически все», – говорит доктор.

Исследователь рака молочной железы в Университете Милана, где она работает профессором эпидемиологии, Паола Мути решила попытаться выяснить, почему этого не произошло в этот раз.

«Д-р Скьяффино подошел ко мне и сказал: «Эй, смотри, Паола, это невероятно. В этой полной пандемии, со всеми случаями, которые произошли на острове, никто не болен». Поэтому я сказала себе: «Хорошо, ведь мы можем провести здесь исследование, да? Я здесь», – рассказывает Паола Мути.

К тому времени Мути оказалась из-за принятых в Италии строгих правил локализации в «ловушке» на острове. Что ее особенно озадачивало, так это то, что многие островитяне имели тесный контакт с приезжими.

Первый известный случай заболевания COVID-19 на Джильо был зарегистрирован у мужчины в возрасте 60 лет, который прибыл на остров 18 февраля – за пару дней до того, как первый «местный случай» в Италии был диагностирован на севере страны. По словам Мути, этот человек приехал на Джильо на похороны родственника и «все время кашлял». А как известно, вирус в основном распространяется через капли, когда кто-то кашляет, чихает или разговаривает. Заболевший мужчина возвратился на пароме в тот же день на материк и умер через три недели в больнице.

5 марта, за четыре дня до того, как была объявлен ​​национальный карантин, еще три посетителя прибыли с материка и дали на острове положительный результат на коронавирус. Одним из них был немец из северной Италии, ставшей первоначальным эпицентром вспышки болезни в Европе. Несколько дней он общался с друзьями из Джильо, в том числе в общественных закусочных. Через неделю из-за сильного кашля его обследовали на острове, и результат был положительным. Он самоизолировался в доме на Джильо.

Были и другие известные случаи, в том числе островитянин, который жил в Австралии в течение двух лет, а затем в середине марта вернулся в Джильо во время локдауна, чтобы увидеться с родителями. По словам Мути, через три дня после прибытия на Джильо у него развилась умеренная температура Он самоизолировался в доме своих родителей.

На Джильо не было зарегистрировано ни одного другого случая, в том числе с момента снятия блокировки в начале июня и прибытия туристов со всей Италии.

Тосканский офис здравоохранения быстро отправил на остров Джильо наборы для проверки на антитела, чтобы увидеть, не было ли у жителей заболеваний COVID-19. В конце апреля жителям острова пришлось сдать анализ крови, выстроившись возле школы и кабинета врача острова.

Из 800 или около того круглогодичных жителей острова 723 вызвались пройти тестирование.

Паола Мути говорит, что только у одного островитянина были обнаружены антитела: у пожилого местного жителя, который плыл на одном пароме к острову с немецким гостем, сказал Мути.

Заинтригованная тем, почему «вирус, по-видимому, не взаимодействовал» с коренным населением острова, Мути не сделала никаких выводов к тому времени, когда готовилась покинуть остров в этом месяце. Она сказала, что планирует записать свое исследование для последующей публикации.

Возможно, предположила Мути, что островитяне не подвергались воздействию достаточного количества коронавирусной инфекции, чтобы заразиться.

Эту возможность также озвучил глава отдела инфекционных заболеваний в римской больнице Tor Vergata Массимо Андреони, отметивший, что некоторые пациенты просто менее способны к распространению заболевания по причинам, которые до сих пор не ясны.

Пандемия коронавируса. Хроника событий

Источник: mk.ru

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