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Доказан факт присутствия коронавируса в Италии уже в декабре 2019-го

Ученые пытаются использовать канализацию в качестве системы раннего оповещения

Итальянские ученые утверждают, что в сточных водах двух городов на севере страны следы коронавируса были обнаружены еще в декабре, то есть задолго до первых подтвержденных случаев заболевания в Италии.

Доказан факт присутствия коронавируса в Италии уже в декабре 2019-го

фото: en.wikipedia.org

Национальный институт здравоохранения (ISS) сообщил, что во взятых 18 декабря прошлого года образцах сточных вод из Милана и Турина были обнаружены генетические вирусные следы. Это сообщение дополняет появившиеся в некоторых других европейских странах свидетельства в пользу версии, что новый вирус, возможно, циркулировал в Европе намного раньше, чем предполагалось.

Китайские власти подтвердили первые случаи заражения коронавирусом нового типа в конце декабря 2019 года, в Италии же официально первый случай был зафиксирован только в середине февраля.

Между тем в мае французские ученые заявили, что испытания образцов показали, что у пациента, которого лечили по подозрению на пневмонию под Парижем 27 декабря, на самом деле был коронавирус. То есть это произошло почти за месяц до того, как Франция подтвердила первые случаи COVID-19.

А в Испании в результате исследования были обнаружены следы вируса в сточных водах, собранных в середине января в Барселоне – примерно за 40 дней до того, как был обнаружен первый местный случай.

В ходе своего исследования итальянские ученые из Национального института здравоохранения исследовали 40 образцов сточных вод, отобранных на очистных сооружениях в северной Италии в период с октября 2019 года по февраль 2020 года.

Эксперт по качеству воды Джузеппина Ла Роса заявила, что образцы, относящиеся к октябрю и ноябрю, оказались отрицательными, что свидетельствует о том, что вирус туда еще не попал. Сточные воды из Болоньи начали показывать следы вируса с 29 января сего года.

Зато результаты, подтвержденные в двух разных лабораториях двумя разными методами, показали наличие SARS-Cov-2 в образцах, отобранных в Милане и Турине 18 декабря 2019 года.

Полученные данные могут помочь ученым понять, как вирус начал распространяться в Италии, объясняет Ла Роса. Однако, по ее словам, исследование не «автоматически подразумевает, что основные цепи передачи, которые привели к развитию эпидемии в нашей стране, произошли из этих самых первых случаев».

Первым известным случаем не завозного вируса (а первыми иностранцами с коронавирусом стала пара китайских туристов в Риме) в Италии стал пациент из ломбардского города Кодоньо. Населенный пункт был закрыт и объявлен «красной зоной» 21 февраля. Затем последовали девять других городов в Ломбардии и соседнем регионе Венето, а в начале марта вся страна оказалась в закрытом положении. От коронавируса, по данным Института Джона Хопкинса в Италии скончались около 35 тысяч человек.

Между тем уже в феврале некоторые медицинские эксперты в Милане говорили, что вирус в Италии, вероятно, мог «циркулировать незамеченным» в течение нескольких недель. И вот изучение образцов сточных вод эту версию подтверждает.

Эксперт по демографическим данным и технологиям из Британской медицинской школы в Уорике Ноэль Маккарти утверждает, что обнаружение генетического материала SARS-Cov-2 в итальянских сточных водах в декабре было «надежным доказательством наличия в то время COVID-19», сообщает Reuters.

А профессор эпидемиологии и данных из Эдинбургского университета Роуланд Као, соглашаясь с вероятностью того, что заболевание могло распространиться еще в декабре, добавляет, что само по себе это открытие не дает ответ на вопрос, стало ли это раннее обнаружение источником очень большой эпидемии в Италии, или эпидемия была связана с более поздним проникновением вируса в страну.

В Национальном институте здравоохранения заявляют, что полученные в ходе исследований результаты подтвердили «стратегическую важность» сточных вод как инструмента раннего обнаружения, поскольку он может сигнализировать о наличии вируса еще до клинического подтверждения случаев заболевания. 

Многие страны сейчас используют эту технику после того, как исследования в Нидерландах, Франции, Австралии и других странах обнаружили признаки того, что вирус, вызывающий COVID-19, может быть обнаружен в сточных водах, и многие страны начинают отбирать образцы для отслеживания заболевания.

Институт планирует начать пилотный проект мониторинга сточных вод на туристических курортах в июле с целью создания общенациональной сети мониторинга сточных вод в конце этого года.

Пандемия коронавируса. Хроника событий

Источник: mk.ru

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